Friday, February 10, 2017
Sunday, January 29, 2017
Islamic Terrorism and Call for Banning Muslims
Nearly fourteen months ago, on 2 December 2015, a pair of Muslim terrorists murdered and injured three dozen people at a social services facility Christmas party in San Bernadino California. On 7 December 2015, Republican Presidential front-runner Donald J Trump called for a complete ban against Muslims immigrating into the United States until government can figure out what's happening. That backed up his earlier call for surveillance of mosques and other Muslim hangouts.
The Ban is Constitutional because...
The call for a ban put Democrats into a tailspin of course. Trump's leftist detractors tried to shame him, but he told them he didn't care what they say. They claimed a religious test for entry into the USA constitutes a violation of the US Constitution's 1st Amendment, which provides this:
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion , or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.Banning Muslims has nothing to do with establishing a religion. Anyone who can read should know that. Apparently America's leftist and Muslim US citizens and others who find a ban on Muslims illegal obviously cannot read or cannot comprehend what they read.
Furthermore, Congress has already given the President the power to impose such a ban. See 8 U.S.C. § ll82, which provides this:
"Whenever the President finds that the entry of any aliens or of any class of aliens into the United States would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, he may by proclamation, and for such period as he shall deem necessary, suspend the entry of all aliens or any class of aliens as immigrants or nonimmigrants, or impose on the entry of aliens any restrictions he may deem to be appropriate. Whenever the Attorney General finds that a commercial airline has failed to comply with regulations of the Attorney General relating to requirements of airlines for the detection of fraudulent documents used by passengers traveling to the United States (including the training of personnel in such detection), the Attorney General may suspend the entry of some or all aliens transported to the United States by such airline."
Islam is a Political System, Not a ReligionBut most importantly, Islam is not actually a religion, even though it bears many of the trappings of a religion. It is, in fact, a POLITICAL system diametrically opposed to the US Constitution-based republics of the USA and of its several states. It operates behind the DISGUISE of a religion.
Begun in the 7th century C.E. in Arabia, Islam's political system known as "Shari'ah" includes taxation, waging war against infidels, slaughtering apostates, and regulating society with laws permitting rape (unless three males attest to having witnessed, but not participated in, the rape), vaginal mutilation to prevent women from enjoying sex to the extent that they would run off with man other than husband, polygamy, and regulating many things such as executions by beheading, punishing robbery by chopping off the right hand, cleansing the body, praying 5 times a day in a public display, giving of alms to widows and orphans and the poor, "Ramadan" fasting during daylight hours for a winter month, making a pilgrimage to Mecca, and many other rules.
Islamic Law Diametrically Opposed to US ConstitutionShari'ah law also mandates a system of public education of males (but not females) centered on the Qur'an (or Koran), its supporting Sunna, or oral traditions of Muhammad which include the Hadiths (his practices) and Sira (his biography). Muslim centers of worship are called mosques. The clerics, known as Imams, interpret the law for less learned Muslims.
Shari'ah does not respect individual liberties, so it does not comport with the liberty guarantees of the US Constitution.
And interestingly, most Islamic governments are monarchies, theocracies, or other dictatorships. Of the approximately 50 Islamic majority states in the world, only five are republics.
The Bloody, Criminal History of Islamic ExpansionHistorically, Muslims entering a land not governed by Shari'ah have become committed to use warfare or lawful but underhanded methods to alter the form of government to a Shari'ah-dominant government over everyone, making Islam the state religion and treating all non-Muslims as third-class citizens. That explains the propensity for Muslim thugs to turn the government into a dictatorship.
Generally, the Muslim population starts growing through immigration and missionary or proselytizating efforts, remaining peaceable and subservient to the laws of the land, but as their population grows, they request or demand the right to govern their own community affairs under Shari'ah and under the religious leadership of their clerics known as Imams. And as their population becomes closer to a majority, Muslims engage in political activities intended to convert the government to one practicing Shari'ah over the entire land. Usually such conversion necessitates insurrection, terrorism, and out and out warfare such as we see in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria.
India, the birthplace of Bhuddism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism, became an early target for Muslims. Arab traders settled in western coastal areas in the 7th century, but invasion of Turkic-Mongols and their Muslim mughal leaders in the 12th century caused a Muslim population explosion. In time the Muslim population caused such unrest with other religious groups, principally Hindus, that the British separated coalesced India's many mughal satrapies into a fledgling nation, and then separated off Pakistan and Bangladesh as Muslim lands. India suffers constant violence and unrest because of conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims there.
In the 7th Century Muslims took over North Africa. They expanded into Spain in the early 8th century and sent armies to within 90 miles of Paris before Charles-the-Hammer's forces defeated them in the Battle of Tours in 732. Muslims ruled most of Spain until Ferdinand and Isabella expelled them in 1492, but the Spanish did not eject the last of the Muslim civilians until 1614.
In the past century, the foolish European, British, and Scandinavian governments have invited Muslims into their lands, believing they could absorb them with no damage to local culture. The recent waves of so-called refugees contain many Islamic jihadists and terrorists bent on rape and plunder of those lands, and of course, converting the governments into Islamic oligarchies in due course.
During the years of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th through the 19th centuries, Muslim pirates and raiders from Turkey and North Africa terrorized coastlines of non-Islamic lands around the Mediterranean, the western Coast of Africa, eastern coast of South America, and as far north as Iceland. Muslim Berber pirates became the USA's very first enemies after the US gained independence from the British monarchy. Only the power of American and European Navies finally quelled the Islamic piracy in the Mediterranean around 1830. But Muslim pirates still represent a dire threat to voyagers near the Philippine island of Mindanao, and in the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, the Persian Gulf, and anywhere else where Muslims predominate in the population.
Furthermore, Islamic militants have done their best to slaughter Americans in the USA, Philippine Islands, Libya and other African nations, Iraq, Kuwait, Afghanistan, Lebanon, and Syria in the past 120 years. The USA has suffered at least 11 serious Islamic terrorist attacks including a variety of shootings and stabbings and the devastations of the Murrah bombing in 1995, World Trade Center in 1993, and the 2001 destruction of the World Trade Center and part of the Pentagon by Muslim airplane hijackers on a suicide mission.
Islam Endangers American and Western CivilizationThus, NO sentient, informed being can have any question whatsoever as to whether Islam is a religion or a political system with religious trappings. It is not a mere religion. It is a political system inseparable from its religious trappings. And one cannot help but conclude that Islam as a political system and its Muslim adherents present a clear and present danger to the government, people, and property of the United States of America, and to Western Civilization in general.
Wherever Islam grows as a religion, intense and violent conflicts ultimately develop between Muslims and the natives.
Islam at its core has a distinctly ANTI-American nature. Therefore its adherents should be banned from the USA forever, or until sensible governments forcibly separate the Shari'ah law and social regulation from Islam to make it into a religion of peace and good will.
The Ban on Muslim Immigration is JustThe United States Government should put Muslims in the same classification as Communists. But it should label Islam as more dangerous owing to the deceptive nature of its religious trappings. Both endanger the sovereignty of our nation and style of our national, state, and local governments. Therefore, Congress should not permit them have employment in municipal, county, state, or national government, including educational institutions and the US military, and Congress should not allow them to vote in any elections.
Possibly, the US Congress can devise a method of requiring all Muslim US citizens to forswear loyalty to Shari'ah law and repudiate all Muslim requirements to obey social regulations. But until then, the US Congress should enact a law banning Muslims from immigrating, revoking the citizenship of naturalized US citizen Muslims, canceling residence permits of all alien Muslims, ejecting all alien Muslims from the USA, and putting all other Muslims in the USA, particularly their clerics and private school teachers, under continuous surveillance for evidence of subversive activities.
We should not allow our state and national leaders to ignore the lessons of history. Islam endangers the American republic and civilization, so federal law should ban its adherents from the land.
Tuesday, January 10, 2017
The President's Farewell Address
Overall, I enjoyed Barack Hussein Obama's inspiring, emotional farewell address to Congress and the nation tonight. I enjoyed his recounting of accomplishments and encouragement to others to participate in government. Overall, I liked the speech and feel grateful to have heard it.
Obama has set an admirable standard for public manners, decorum, and humor that people of all races throughout the USA should aspire to match in their personal comportment.
I did not like his divisive references such as to the impoverished fighting for scraps while the rich wallow in money, as though government owes a better living to the impoverished without imposing any requirements upon them to demonstrate responsibility.
I did not like his reference to our nation/government as a "democracy," which I consider a vile justification for "mob rule." I would have preferred to hear him refer to our "REPUBLIC" instead.
And I did not like his assertion that everyone should have a right to vote because he did not condition voting rights upon demonstrable responsibility.
Responsibility and Sound Suffrage
In the early days of the nation, states allowed only free white propertied men over 21 to vote.
That was a responsibility test. Being white was luck of the draw, but in those days most people were white and non-whites were slaves, Indians, or Mestizos generally considered irresponsible. Anybody who owned land or had disposable gold or silver was ipso facto responsible. Anybody over 21 had already been working for a living or engaged in military service for several years, another element of demonstrable responsibility. Such people had something to LOSE if government employees behaved badly. So they could be trusted to vote wisely.
Nowadays, government lets all kinds of relatively irresponsible people vote, including the abysmally stupid, drug and alcohol addicts, people on welfare, stay-at-home women who have no interest in government, homeless people, hopelessly indebted people, and in some areas even felons and aliens. That is, simply, INSANE, that is what Obama wants and always wanted (so such fools would vote tax-and-spend Democrats into office), and it must change.
The POINT. While everyone should have some say in government, only responsible voters should sway elections. In a related family paradigm, wise parents let children participate in the decisions of family government, but children never win when the parents' wisdom opposes them. Children might vote for the kids to go for a joy ride in the car, but wise parents will override them and say NO, and then explain why. That is one way parents can teach children their wisdom.
Limit Suffrage while Everybody Votes
I recoiled at the President's declaration that everyone should vote because I know that is idiotic, unless the President wants an irresponsible electorate.
Nevertherless, I concluded that my general call for massive changes to the Constitution to limit suffrage to the responsible goes a bit overboard and ignores a fundamental truth. People tend to care about what they have a hand in supporting and running. Participation in government lets the stupid and criminal behave irresponsibly through their votes. But when they have no say at all, they reason that they might as well hate and actually attack government and its ideals to get their fair share.
Therefore, I have decided to modify my call for denying suffrage to the irresponsible into a call to give limited suffrage to the irresponsible, sufficient for them to know they have a say in government, but not sufficient for them to overwhelm responsible people as they become an ever larger percentage of the population.
I want the suffrage system to encourage people to become more responsible so that they might have more influence on government through their votes.
Thus, I recommend a system of scaled voting rights.
Scaled Voting Rights
The least responsible and most ignorant should have the right to cast a minuscule percentage of a vote. The most responsible and best educated should have the right to cast multiple votes or voluntarily to cast fewer votes or split his votes to cast some for one candidate or issue, and some for an opposing candidate or issue.
A suffrage commission should study and set the scale and percentages for each level of voting rights, and establish a means of testing citizens to determine which level of voting rights they possess, and a means by which people can get a higher voting percentage by becoming better educated and demonstrating greater responsibility or by which people get lower voting rights by demonstrating less responsibility or failing to get high marks on knowledge tests.
The most important test of knowledge should deal with the constitutions of the US and the State of domicile, followed by formal education, apprenticeships, work experience, and ad hoc education. Since most issues upon which people vote have to do with government and civilization, people with the best educations in the ideals of good republican government and of advancement of civilization should have better voting rights.
Yes, many fights will break out over what advances and what retards civilization and what improves and what worsens government, but so what? It needs to happen.
Right now we have pathetic standards for voting rights. One must be a US or State citizen in most jurisdictions to vote, and must not be a felon to vote in most jurisdictions, and must not have been adjudged insane, and must be over age 18. In time, the irresponsible will become the majority of voters, judging from immigration and procreation statistics. We need to stiffen the suffrage standards with the scaling system.
Examples of Scaling
Here are some examples of scaling voting rights according to education alone:
- Minimum voting age to exercise one full right to vote should become 25 years of age, the age at which the brain becomes fully developed, and also the age by which most people will have had experience in work or military to give them some reasonable nexus to society and to government as a responsibility-bearing citizen. Prior to that, people are too immature to take voting as seriously as a responsibility to provoke them to study the issues and Constitution and candidates.
- To exercise one full right to vote one must have obtained a high school diploma with a minimum passing grade of C (70% or 2.80). Citizens can pay for a retraining course and retake the tests to obtain higher grades and increase voting rights.
- Obtaining an Associates degree would increase voting right to by .25,
- Bachelor's degree would increase by an additional .25,
- Master's degree an additional .25, and
- PhD, MD or equivalent an additional .25 vote.
- MD internship completion would add .25 vote
- Apprenticeship completion would add .1 vote
Instead of the above percentages of a vote added to voting rights, the single vote could be scaled down or up by a percentage factor based on marriage, legal separation, divorce, arrests, convictions, sentences, behavior in prison/jail, behavior in schools, going on or off of welfare, becoming indebted for luxuries, paying off debts, traffic and other accidents, drug and alcohol and gambling addictions, mental incompetence, being diagnosed with a mind-deficient condition (including depression), savings, investments, growth of savings and investments, constitution competence testing results, completion of marriage training, out of wedlock pregnancies, accidental pregnancies, academic performance of a voter's school age children, acts of heroism, military service including awards and type of discharge, and employment and social commendations.
Think Before You Slap
Before you slap your forehead and slam your fist on the table in outrage over my suggestion, consider that the founders of our nation gave voting rights based on DEMONSTRATIVE responsibility, and I merely recommend re-instituting, improving, and refining that tried-and-true requirement with the aid of computer technology that can track all of the above qualities of responsible citizenship.
Feel free to send me your comments or post them on my blog. If you agree with the scaled suffrage system, propose it to your legislators.
Sunday, January 08, 2017
Julian P Heicklen <email@example.com>:
I read your report (attached) and enjoyed learning about your FIJA efforts. I write to comment on some of your comments.
How to beat the Chief Judge.
You can beat judges who prohibit handing out flyers by attacking them in with out-of state federal judges and with citizen initiatives and legislation. You cannot beat them by getting arrested for handing out flyers UNLESS you can bring so many people to the courthouse that the deputies/marshals cannot possibly arrest them all. Halloween is the best day for this is Halloween because in Florida (see Florida Statutes Chapter 876) that's the one day you can lawfully wear a disguise that hides your identity. All protestors must leave their wallet and ID card at home, of course, and refuse fingerprinting if arrested.
- It is not illegal to hand out flyers on public property so long as you don't harass others in the process or impede the proper functioning of the court. Meanwhile, nobody keeps you from dropping flyers from a drone or getting people to wear informative t-shirts and magnet signs on their cars, etc.
Whether to beat the Chief Judge - this issue raises the question of why judges don't want jurors to get FIJA flyers. To get to the heart of it you must do some research and use some reasoning.
Why Gov't Stripped Juries of Powers. I proved that the Florida Constitutions changed in the civil war era to remove the power of grand juries to investigate all felonies (now they investigate only capitol crimes), and petit juries to judge the law as well as facts, and of crime victims to prosecute crimes personally ("private prosecution"). Nothing explained why those changes happened, but common sense points to a good reason: Negroes having voting rights. These days U.S. Negroes have an average IQ of 85, the level needed to graduate from high school. Thus, one half of our Negroes are too stupid to graduate. To me that means they are too stupid to vote or sit on a jury. The OJ Simpson murder trial proved that it makes no sense for Negroes to serve as jurors without some restrictions other than failure to have registered as a voter. The 15th Amendment gave Negro men the right to vote, the 19th extended that right to Negro and other women, and the 26th extended it to children 18 and over.
How to fix the problem. All of those amendments were completely stupid and should never have become ratified without imposing further qualifications such as having at least a high school diploma, having passed a constitution competency test, being financially self-sufficient (not subsisting on welfare), and being of good moral and ethical character. When judges and lawmakers discovered that hopelessly ignorant and irresponsible voters could populate juries, they stripped from "the people" much of their jury rights. And that is why it makes no sense to buck against the judges today without first getting legislation enacted to impose upon prospective voters the obligation to prove themselves responsible, educated, law-abiding, and well-informed. I personally believe that we have corrupt legislatures because we have a corrupt, incompetent, ignorant, and irresponsible electorate.
Deporting Mexicans and Muslims -
Trump Should Do It. This would be an excellent move on Trump's part. I refer, of course, to deporting all Muslim non-citizens, alien and otherwise, whether or not refugees, and all undocumented aliens, Mexican and otherwise. Illegal aliens have no valid reason to be in the USA and they take jobs Americans should have. They also encourage a black-market economy which diminishes tax revenues. Muslims, whether peaceable or violent, constitute a grave danger to the US and its people because all Muslims support Shari'a law and want it to supplant our constitutional republic, and they all give financial support directly or indirectly to Jihadists. SO Muslims are enemies of our constitutions. The President should hammer Congress for legislation requiring all Muslim citizens to swear an oath disavowing loyalty and support for any form of Shari'a, and also say "Hell NO" to anchor babies, and push the legislation through Congress to outlaw it.
Deportation Difficulty Leads to Gas Chambers? - What an idiotic notion. The USA is not run by a Nazi government like pre WWII Germany was. Trump's desire to deport illegal aliens and non-citizen Muslims is practical common sense and it does not compare to Hitler's deportation of Jews out of racial hatred. Federal law enforcers CAN determine the country of origin of illegal immigrants and forcibly return them. Congress should impose upon all foreign countries the obligation to pay for the deportation costs. Routine deportation and the difficulty thereof does not lead to gas chambers. In the US, prison or work camps constitute a practical alternative to deportation, if the Government has the spine for it. No matter how you cut it, undocumented entry into the US is a crime and it should be prevented, not merely prohibited, and illegal aliens should be unceremoniously tossed out of the land.Protests do not cause laws to change unless the laws are practical and morally right, or unless the government is corrupt.
- Prison Populations. The US has a lot of people in prison because it contains a lot of stupid and criminal people, and many of them chose to sell drugs for a living instead of having lawful jobs.
Stupidity. 80 Million people comprising 25% of the population are too stupid to graduate from a proper high school and gravitate to crime and welfare abuse to get by, robbing the productive in the process. The only solution is to diminish the percentage of stupid people in the population, and the only humane ways to do that are to sterilize the stupid (because only stupid people don't know that the stupid inherit their stupidity from parents), and meanwhile to encourage the average and smart to have large broods of children. In its effect it seems racial because many Negroes and Mestizos would get sterilized because the stupid constitute such a large percentage of their gene groups. But that is just tough titty, so to speak. Remember though that the stupid in the USA comprise about 35 million Caucasians, 21 million Negroes, and 24 million Mestizos, so it includes a lot of "white" people too. Bottom line, reduce the percentage of stupid people in the population and you reduce the prison population.
- Drugs. The prison populations will not reduce until street drugs become legalized and taxed at a rate high enough to discourage use and low enough to make black market dealing unprofitable. Slamming the borders and coastlines and airways shut to immigrants, and properly inspecting inbound cargos will help prevent the smuggling of drugs into the country.
- Guns and the 2nd Amendment.
The 2nd Amendment guarantees to "the people" the right to keep and bear arms. "The People" includes responsible people with a nexus to government, not every human being within the borders of the USA. "The People" does not include felons, those adjudged mentally incompetent, children under 18 (16 in Vermont), or illegal aliens. And "arms" does not include any destructive device one might want to carry, drive, or haul around. Congress has specifically limited the meaning of people and arms with respect to the Constitution's 2nd Amendment.
It goes without saying that public officers will not intentionally set up or allow a circumstance that will encourage destruction of government through armed rebellion or insurrection. But in fact Congress has said exactly that in laws against rebellion and insurrection.
Yes, Negroes and Islamic Jihadists (agents of AlQuaeda/ISIL) across the USA have increased their boldness in the outrageous murders of Negroes, law enforcers, and innocent citizens. Felons, other irresponsibles, and Islamic terrorists commit most of those murders.
YOU, like an IDIOT, encourage Americans to murder judges because you think all of them are corrupt. But you offer no reason to believe that all judges are corrupt. I personally believe most of them try their best to do a good job, and I denounce your efforts to get judges killed.
- Fix the electorate and Grand Juries. Americans should work assiduously to propose and get legislatures to enact laws heightening the requirements of education, intelligence, self-sufficiency, sanity, and lawfulness for becoming a voter. strengthening the juries by restoring jury powers, and making it easier for citizens whom judges and prosecutors have abused to report the evidence and crimes to grand juries free of influence by the courts and prosecutors. Americans should work to reinstate private powers of prosecution of criminal defendants when US Attorneys and State Attorneys and Attorneys General refuse to prosecute those in power who should be prosecuted.
Thursday, December 29, 2016
What Went Wrong with Our Electoral System
The Good of the Electoral System
Hamilton explained in Federalist 68 (appended below) the reasons for the electoral system in the Constitution for the United States of America (CUSA) - to prevent cabal, intrigue, incompetence, and attitudes disconnected from the sense of the people from effecting the election of the US President. Such an intrigue included that from concentrated masses of people in urban areas. The electoral system prevented urban populations from overwhelming the will of widespread provincial and rural populations.
The amended CUSA's electoral system requires that each state have a number of electors equal to the number of its representatives in Congress, and that responsible voters should choose them, and the state shall determine the manner of their casting votes for the President and Vice President. The CUSA provides means for resolving ties in the electoral votes. The system is not perfect, but sensible, informed people generally recognize that it does a pretty good job.
What Happens with an Alien as President
UNFORTUNATELY, our imperfect system allowed an abject imposter, Barack Hussein Obama, to ascend to the Presidency and to do many evils during his 8 years in office.
Fairness dictates that we admit certain benign features of Obama's Presidency. The nations health insurance system needed overhaul, the armies in Afghanistan and Iraq needed to come home from their no-win wars. Obama put those into motion. And he has a nice smile and pleasant way of speaking.
But Obama also fomented and financed a war against the government of Syria as punishment for Assad's refusal to allow a Qatar gas pipeline to run through Syria, spearheaded the growth of ISIL, caused millions of Muslims with jihadist intentions or inclinations to invade the USA, UK, Europe, and Scandinavia (while blaming it on climate change), dramatically increased health care insurance premiums for productive Americans in order to give a virtual free ride to the non-productive, failed to protect the US borders from invasion through IberoAmerica and Canada and the coastlines, failed to eject illegal aliens, gave Iran the money it needed to by Boeing airplanes, and has continued the process of squandering billions of dollars through foreign aid, and encouraged Negro malcontents to riot and rampage across American cities by giving Negro crime a virtual green light through his support of thugs like Trayvon Martin.
And his family travel and vacations have cost taxpayers $85 million in the course of his Presidency.
The Natural Born Citizen Issue Solved
Obama is not a natural born citizen because he has an alien (British African) father, he was born in Kenya, and his US citizen mother had remained too long outside the USA to confer citizenship upon him at birth under US law at the time.
Clearly, the CUSA failed to impose upon any particular agency the obligation to verify the credentials of aspirants to the offices of President and Vice President PRIOR to their running or campaigning for office. Both Mario Rubio and Ted Cruz campaigned to become the Republican candidate for President even though neither qualifies as a natural born citizen.
The value of the requirement of natural born citizen status consists of freedom from foreign influence on one's conscience and loyalty to the CUSA. Natural born citizen status ensures that the citizen bears no conflicting pressure on his loyalty to the obligation to protect, preserve, and defend the CUSA against all enemies foreign and domestic.
Conflicts arise by these factors:
- Extended absence from the USA to live in a foreign land (other than as a consulate employee);
- Birth to a non-US Citizen parent;
- Birth in a foreign land.
For that reason, a "natural born citizen" is born on US soil of two US citizen parents, according to my thinking.
Others like scholar Jon Roland harbor a differing opinion, saying we owe it to English law to accept "jus soli" (law of soil) as the determining factor of a natural born citizen. But I disagree for the reasons above.
And, bottom line, if Congress has anything at all to say about one's citizenship status, one is not a natural born citizen because Congress only deals with naturalization. As Ann Coulter wrote on 13 January 2013, "A child born to American parents outside of U.S. territory may be a citizen the moment he is born -- but only by "naturalization," i.e., by laws passed by Congress. If Congress has to write a law to make you a citizen, you're not "natural born."
The Problem with Obama's Split Loyalties
Obama's alien loyalties to Islamic culture and religion and to alien governments, cultures, and people, including family members, of Kenya and Indonesia definitely conflict with his loyalty to the CUSA.
In spite of the awareness of Obama's political handlers about his split loyalties when he became an Illinois and US lawmaker, no one lifted a finger to verify his citizenship and birth status prior to his running for the Presidency. This had nothing in particular to do with the electoral system, but it shows how irresponsible the electors and party apparatchiks were were in casting their votes for Obama.
Core Deficiency in Electoral System - No Investigative Power
However, Obama's lack of qualification for the Presidency reveals a core deficiency in the electoral system. The electors operate as a loose array of individuals, possibly overseen by operatives of political parties. They do not have an investigatory body to command nor a budget, other than for travel to the state capitol to cast their ballots. And yet the burden falls upon them as the opportunity of last resort to verify the credentials and qualifications of the candidates for President and Vice President.
The CUSA's 25th Amendment (appended below) provides for the Congress to determine whether the President suffers from incapacity to perform duties, and to put the Vice President forth as President. This was intended to accommodate an illness or mental dysfunction that made the President unable to perform.
A sentient Congress could use this as a final stop-gap means to strip power from an incipient President on the basis that his incapacity devolves from never having qualified to hold the office to begin with, owing to non-natural-born-citizen status which nobody bothered checking or protesting earlier.
All should demand of our legislators that they create a new amendment to the CUSA requiring an examination of credentials and full airing of related disputes, obliging the courts to weigh in with non-binding opinions. The electors should have all that data available before casting their votes, and the CUSA should prohibit interference with electors voting as they see fit.
As I see it, today's electors are just political hacks. Nothing really guarantees that they are intelligent, properly educated and informed about the issues and candidates and candidate qualifications, and free of party interference prior to casting their votes.
THAT, in my opinion, needs to be fixed.
Exceptions?One correspondent wrote this suggestion that an exception exists for Obama:
"Obama's legitimacy rests on the theory of implicit amendment by subsequent events which includes changes in law relative to the clause in question, but not implicitly repealing that clause. The natural born clause seems to be inconsistent with the equal protection clause and the one kind of citizenship clause, but not necessarily. There could be an exception to both general rules in the case of the President. "Surely someone before me has opined that the ambiguous provisions of the Constitution should not serve to undo, pervert, or subvert the features the founders obviously intended and enabled through the ambiguity. They intended the ambiguity to give flexibility, not to justify or facilitate subversion. They devised the electoral system not as an end unto itself but to keep enemies, traitors, aliens, alien agents, cabalists, etc., out of the Presidency with minimal disruption by side effects. To the extent it fails to do that, some individual or group has subverted its function to serve people other than the responsible citizenry of the land.
That is why I explained my take on the principle underlying the natural born citizen restriction on aspirants to the Presidency. By implication, first of all, a non-natural-born citizen should never be allowed to run for President or become a nominated candidate for President because he can never become President constitutionally. So Congress must devise a means of verifying credentials and qualifications at the time a person signs up as nominee or candidate and again immediately prior to elevation to office. Furthermore, a President must not have split or alloyed loyalty with respect to the US Constitution in contrast to alien constitutions, governments, cultures, geography, and people.
We must see the natural born citizen requirement in that light or its function becomes perverted or subverted. And that is the problem with Jon Roland's insistence on bowing to English authorities on the qualifications of the US President. Such bowing results in a subversion of the principle against split loyalties in the Presidency.
That is why a natural born citizen is and must be a US citizen who was born on US soil of TWO US citizen parents, not merely one US citizen parent and one alien parent, and he must not only have credible proof documents, but there must be no credible dissent (such as family members claiming they saw him being born in the Coast Hospital of Mumbasi Kenya).
And, that is also why the Constitution requires the President to have resided in the USA for 14 contiguous years prior to election - to reduce the likelihood of influence by alien loyalties.
There can be no exception to those rules. Ann Coulter wrote rightly that anyone who becomes a citizen by virtue of a law simply does not constitute a natural born citizen.
Beating a Dead Horse?
Another correspondent penned "Come on, get serious, Obama is legitimate and you cannot go back eight years."
No, Obama is not and never was a legitimate US President, because he was born in alien land to an alien father. We have had an alien President with alien allegiances for 8 years because nobody bothered scrutinizing his birth records and other credentials prior to allowing him to run for or ascend to the Presidency, and nobody bothered blocking him because he is an alien. Obama's mother lacked the legal capacity to confer US citizenship upon him because of her extended absence from the country. Obama is not even a US citizen, much less a natural born citizen.
This is not a dead issue and I am not beating a dead horse, so to speak. Congress must enact a law to enforce scrutiny of credentials and denial of the right to run or serve for every elected and appointed officer of US government.
⚓ Bob Hurt
The Mode of Electing the President
To the People of the State of New York:
THE mode of appointment of the Chief Magistrate of the United States is almost the only part of the system, of any consequence, which has escaped without severe censure, or which has received the slightest mark of approbation from its opponents. The most plausible of these, who has appeared in print, has even deigned to admit that the election of the President is pretty well guarded.1 I venture somewhat further, and hesitate not to affirm, that if the manner of it be not perfect, it is at least excellent. It unites in an eminent degree all the advantages, the union of which was to be wished for.
It was desirable that the sense of the people should operate in the choice of the person to whom so important a trust was to be confided. This end will be answered by committing the right of making it, not to any preestablished body, but to men chosen by the people for the special purpose, and at the particular conjuncture.
It was equally desirable, that the immediate election should be made by men most capable of analyzing the qualities adapted to the station, and acting under circumstances favorable to deliberation, and to a judicious combination of all the reasons and inducements which were proper to govern their choice. A small number of persons, selected by their fellow-citizens from the general mass, will be most likely to possess the information and discernment requisite to such complicated investigations.
It was also peculiarly desirable to afford as little opportunity as possible to tumult and disorder. This evil was not least to be dreaded in the election of a magistrate, who was to have so important an agency in the administration of the government as the President of the United States. But the precautions which have been so happily concerted in the system under consideration, promise an effectual security against this mischief. The choice of SEVERAL, to form an intermediate body of electors, will be much less apt to convulse the community with any extraordinary or violent movements, than the choice of ONE who was himself to be the final object of the public wishes. And as the electors, chosen in each State, are to assemble and vote in the State in which they are chosen, this detached and divided situation will expose them much less to heats and ferments, which might be communicated from them to the people, than if they were all to be convened at one time, in one place.
Nothing was more to be desired than that every practicable obstacle should be opposed to cabal, intrigue, and corruption. These most deadly adversaries of republican government might naturally have been expected to make their approaches from more than one querter, but chiefly from the desire in foreign powers to gain an improper ascendant in our councils. How could they better gratify this, than by raising a creature of their own to the chief magistracy of the Union? But the convention have guarded against all danger of this sort, with the most provident and judicious attention. They have not made the appointment of the President to depend on any preexisting bodies of men, who might be tampered with beforehand to prostitute their votes; but they have referred it in the first instance to an immediate act of the people of America, to be exerted in the choice of persons for the temporary and sole purpose of making the appointment. And they have excluded from eligibility to this trust, all those who from situation might be suspected of too great devotion to the President in office. No senator, representative, or other person holding a place of trust or profit under the United States, can be of the numbers of the electors. Thus without corrupting the body of the people, the immediate agents in the election will at least enter upon the task free from any sinister bias. Their transient existence, and their detached situation, already taken notice of, afford a satisfactory prospect of their continuing so, to the conclusion of it. The business of corruption, when it is to embrace so considerable a number of men, requires time as well as means. Nor would it be found easy suddenly to embark them, dispersed as they would be over thirteen States, in any combinations founded upon motives, which though they could not properly be denominated corrupt, might yet be of a nature to mislead them from their duty.
Another and no less important desideratum was, that the Executive should be independent for his continuance in office on all but the people themselves. He might otherwise be tempted to sacrifice his duty to his complaisance for those whose favor was necessary to the duration of his official consequence. This advantage will also be secured, by making his re-election to depend on a special body of representatives, deputed by the society for the single purpose of making the important choice.
All these advantages will happily combine in the plan devised by the convention; which is, that the people of each State shall choose a number of persons as electors, equal to the number of senators and representatives of such State in the national government, who shall assemble within the State, and vote for some fit person as President. Their votes, thus given, are to be transmitted to the seat of the national government, and the person who may happen to have a majority of the whole number of votes will be the President. But as a majority of the votes might not always happen to centre in one man, and as it might be unsafe to permit less than a majority to be conclusive, it is provided that, in such a contingency, the House of Representatives shall select out of the candidates who shall have the five highest number of votes, the man who in their opinion may be best qualified for the office.
The process of election affords a moral certainty, that the office of President will never fall to the lot of any man who is not in an eminent degree endowed with the requisite qualifications. Talents for low intrigue, and the little arts of popularity, may alone suffice to elevate a man to the first honors in a single State; but it will require other talents, and a different kind of merit, to establish him in the esteem and confidence of the whole Union, or of so considerable a portion of it as would be necessary to make him a successful candidate for the distinguished office of President of the United States. It will not be too strong to say, that there will be a constant probability of seeing the station filled by characters pre-eminent for ability and virtue. And this will be thought no inconsiderable recommendation of the Constitution, by those who are able to estimate the share which the executive in every government must necessarily have in its good or ill administration. Though we cannot acquiesce in the political heresy of the poet who says: "For forms of government let fools contest That which is best administered is best,'' yet we may safely pronounce, that the true test of a good government is its aptitude and tendency to produce a good administration.
The Vice-President is to be chosen in the same manner with the President; with this difference, that the Senate is to do, in respect to the former, what is to be done by the House of Representatives, in respect to the latter.
The appointment of an extraordinary person, as Vice-President, has been objected to as superfluous, if not mischievous. It has been alleged, that it would have been preferable to have authorized the Senate to elect out of their own body an officer answering that description. But two considerations seem to justify the ideas of the convention in this respect. One is, that to secure at all times the possibility of a definite resolution of the body, it is necessary that the President should have only a casting vote. And to take the senator of any State from his seat as senator, to place him in that of President of the Senate, would be to exchange, in regard to the State from which he came, a constant for a contingent vote. The other consideration is, that as the Vice-President may occasionally become a substitute for the President, in the supreme executive magistracy, all the reasons which recommend the mode of election prescribed for the one, apply with great if not with equal force to the manner of appointing the other. It is remarkable that in this, as in most other instances, the objection which is made would lie against the constitution of this State. We have a Lieutenant-Governor, chosen by the people at large, who presides in the Senate, and is the constitutional substitute for the Governor, in casualties similar to those which would authorize the Vice-President to exercise the authorities and discharge the duties of the President.
1 Vide FEDERAL FARMER.
PRESIDENTIAL VACANCY AND DISABILITY
TWENTY-FIFTH AMENDMENT SECTIONS 1–4.
1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principle officers of the 2285 executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.
Thursday, November 03, 2016
Florida foreclosure defense attorney Roy Oppenheim explained his foreclosure statute of limitations win for a mortgagor client in his May 2016 blog article appended below. He says the legislature intended the statute of limitations as an inequitable resolution of an equity dispute. Why? Because it just does not seem right to allow an injured party FOREVER to bring an action against his defendant.
Creditors have 5 years to bring a foreclosure action against the borrower after the borrower defaults on the debt payments and the creditor accelerates the loan, foreshortening the lengthy monthly payment plan into one payment of the entire loan balance plus costs of collecting the debt, to one lump sum, payable immediately.
Borrower and lender agreed to the acceleration in the loan security instrument. They also agreed that the creditor could refuse any payment less than that required to bring the loan current. But the present uniform security instrument (a "mortgage" in Florida) makes no provision for decelerating an accelerated loan balance. Thus, the acceleration essentially notifies the borrower "Pay us everything you owe us right now or we will foreclose and force a sale of the mortgaged property to retire the debt." In Florida that means the creditor must file a foreclosure law suit against the borrower. And the statute of limitations allows a 5-year window for such a lawsuit. The statute terminates the right to collect the debt.
Florida judges differ in their opinions as to how the statute of limitations apply, but few have embraced the above question. Some seem offended by the notion that mere statue can rightly make a mortgage debt disappear into thin air, leaving the creditor empty-handed and with no way to collect. Those have accepted creditor arguments that the 5 year limit applies only to the monthly payments overdue by more than 5 years, even after the creditor has accelerated the loan.
Hold it. Not so fast. What if the creditor does not accelerate the loan until the court issues a foreclosure judgment?
It seems dead wrong to allow banks or borrowers to have it both ways. Borrowers should pay their debts timely or face foreclosure. Creditors should prepare a case and sue for foreclosure within the statutory 5 years after acceleration. But creditors should not have the right to accelerate the payment schedule into one immediately due total loan balance AND have the 5 year statute of limitation apply only to all monthly payments more than 5 years overdue. It must apply only to the accelerated balance due as of the date of acceleration. So, the statute of limitations clock should start ticking upon borrower receipt of the letter in which the creditor explicitly declares the loan accelerated.
Today the Florida Supreme Court issued its long-awaited Bartram v US Bank opinion (appended below) which shows how to construe the meaning of the term "acceleration" in the uniform Mortgage Security Instrument.
The Supremes did not have to opine that the Statute of Limitations applies to every payment in the installment contract schedule, rather than to the accelerated amount (the full loan balance). Instead, the Court claimed acceleration did not become effective until final judgment of foreclosure. The Court pointed out that the creditor never said in its letters to the borrower that it had exercised its right to accelerate, but only said that it retained the right to accelerate. Very clever and sneaky.
Maybe the Supremes are technically right. After all, what is the law and what is the contract if not a technicality. But the opinion seems like a flim-flam to me. The language of the mortgage security instrument allowing the borrower to "reinstate" the original loan repayment schedule by bringing the loan current implicitly means that acceleration of the loan "uninstates" that schedule and replaces it with the requirement to pay the entire loan balance immediately. The court pointed out that the right to reinstate disappears upon rendering of foreclosure final judgment.
That means the reinstatement window opens and then slams shut all in the same instant. That can only hold true in the Bizarro universe created by the Florida Supreme Court in defiance of all common sense.
The mortgage gives the creditor the right to accelerate and the borrower the right to reinstate. To me that means the creditor exercises the acceleration right by demanding immediate payment of the loan balance, by asserting a written intention to foreclose, or by filing a foreclosure action. The acceleration stays in effect till final judgment of foreclosure or until the creditor rescinds it. And the borrower does not reinstate the original payment schedule except by paying an amount sufficient to bring the loan current, including all accrued interest, cost of collection, and escrow deficiency.
The Bizarro Supremes might change their minds some day. So, borrowers should not too quickly rush to assume that the Bartram opinion limits their right to buck against untimely foreclosure using the statute of limitation defense IF any notice from the creditor or servicer states something like "we hereby accelerate the loan." Such language might start the ticking of the statute of limitations clock.
Weird? Kinda. Nevertheless, the Bartram opinion exhaustively analyzes the issues. Readers will find it interesting if not instructive.
The Third District Court of Appeal's recent decision in Beauvais would suggest that the five-year statute of limitation does not apply to mortgage foreclosure actions. However, not all courts would agree.
Oppenheim Law recently secured a win in Port St. Lucie County for the five-year statute of limitations. Indeed, Judge William L. Roby entered judgment for the borrower based on our argument that the lender's lawsuit was barred by the five-year statute of limitations. The Judge moved forward and allowed argument even though Bartram is still pending.
Acceleration and the lack of deceleration
The plaintiff sued our client to foreclose in 2008, alleging in its complaint that the entire amount under the loan was due and owing, and its lawsuit was dismissed without prejudice in 2012. Plaintiff then filed another lawsuit some five years and several days later, in response to which our client asserted the statute of limitations defense. Through a strategic, successful deposition, we were able to confirm the fact of acceleration and the lack of deceleration. Armed with this information, we asked the court to rule in our favor. Within twenty (20) minutes, we were able to obtain a ruling favorable to our client. Plaintiff forfeits its right to file suit on the borrowers note In finding in our client's favor, the judge found that the Plaintiff did accelerate the loan when it filed the initial complaint declaring that the entire amount was due and owing, and then had only five years to bring a subsequent action to foreclose. Having failed to do so, the Plaintiff forfeited its right to file suit on the Note:
Having elected to accelerate the total amount due and owing on December 10, 2008, Plaintiff had five (5) years from that date in which to bring a subsequent action to foreclose on the Note.
Thus, to comply with the five-year statute of limitations, Plaintiff was obligated to file suit no later than December 10, 2013, to attempt re-foreclosure on the Note. However, Plaintiff did not file the Complaint in the 2013 Foreclosure Lawsuit until December 20, 2013, thereby missing the deadline by ten (10) days. The failure to timely re-file cut off Provident's right to file suit on the Note.
Each new default date is a different cause of action
In so ruling, the Court specifically addressed—and dismissed—the Plaintiff's argument that each new default date is a different cause of action:
The Plaintiff's legal argument in its written and oral opposition to the Defendants' Motion for Summary Judgment is that each new default date is a different cause of action; therefore, the Plaintiff asserts that it was authorized to sue on the September 1, 2008, default date because it differs from the default date alleged in the Complaint in the 2008 Foreclosure Lawsuit (August 1, 2008). However, having elected to accelerate the total amount due and owing under the Note via the Complaint in the 2008 Foreclosure Lawsuit, Plaintiff could not proceed in suing on another payment default as no future installment existed. The Plaintiff's corporate representative explicitly testified in the deposition that acceleration occurred and that the Plaintiff treated the loan as accelerated from that time forward, even following the dismissal of the 2008 ForeclosureLawsuit. The corporate representative testified that Provident has no procedures in place to decelerate and that Provident did not take any affirmative action so as to indicate that it would accept anything less than the full amount due on the Note following acceleration . . . .
Outside of the five years rule
In ruling in our favor, the court adopted several of our arguments, including the fact that the plaintiff could not premise the second lawsuit on the particular default date alleged because the date was within the range of dates included in the first lawsuit. The court also acknowledged that the plaintiff could not sue upon the particular date of default alleged because it was literally outside of the five years immediately preceding the date of filing of the second lawsuit.
Five years is five years
The presiding judge recognized that the statute of limitations "is a purposefully inequitable legislative doctrine, intended to cut off an otherwise legally valid cause of action after a party has sat on their rights—unlike res judicata, which is an equitable judicial doctrine which should not always be enforced if it is inequitable for courts to do so. " For that reason, "[i]f a party to a matter does not comply with the statute of limitations, it is responsible for the consequences, regardless of the fact that another party retains a benefit as a result of that non-compliance."
The Court likened the situation to a contractor's requirement to timely provide a homeowner with a final payment affidavit, a requirement in the area of construction lien law. The contractor's failure to timely furnish such an affidavit entitles the owner to a dismissal of the contractor's lien foreclosure lawsuit, "regardless of whether the contractor performed the work or the homeowner received the benefit of that work via an improvement to their property." "Following this analogy . . . . the statute of limitations applicable to this action necessarily cuts off the Plaintiff's right to foreclose, regardless of the fact that the Plaintiff at one point furnished funds to the Defendants."
The Florida Five-Year Statute of Limitations Rule is Complex.
Light at the End of the Tunnel
The Third District Court of Appeal's recent ruling in Beauvais turns the five-year statute of limitations on its head. It is not a good precedent for the borrower. However, regardless of all the bank-friendly fanfare, the statute of limitations as it applies to mortgage foreclosure actions clearly in South Florida still has a few lifelines left.
Our victory in St. Lucie, and the fact that the Beavauis opinion was, by far, not a unanimous decision (four out of ten judges dissented) reflects a pattern of judicial divisiveness over theapplicability of the statute of limitations. With that divisiveness comes the potential for more borrower-friendly rulings, like the one we recently obtained in St. Lucie.
All we can say is, hold on to your hats and do not bet the ranch on this one.
From the Trenches
LEWIS BROOKE BARTRAM,
U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, etc., et al.,
THE PLANTATION AT PONTE VEDRA,
U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, etc., et al.,
GIDEON M.G. GRATSIANI,
U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, etc., et al.,
[November 3, 2016]
The issue before the Court involves the application of the five-year statute of
limitations to "[a]n action to foreclose a mortgage" pursuant to section 95.11(2)(c),
Florida Statutes (2012).1 The Fifth District Court of Appeal relied on this Court's
reasoning in Singleton v. Greymar Associates, 882 So. 2d 1004 (Fla. 2004),
rejecting that the statute of limitations had expired. Because of the importance of
this issue to both lenders and borrowers, the Fifth District certified to this Court a
question of great public importance, which we have rephrased to acknowledge that
the note in this case is a standard residential mortgage, which included a
contractual right to reinstate:
DOES ACCELERATION OF PAYMENTS DUE UNDER A
RESIDENTIAL NOTE AND MORTGAGE WITH A
REINSTATEMENT PROVISION IN A FORECLOSURE ACTION THAT WAS DISMISSED PURSUANT TO RULE 1.420(B),
FLORIDA RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, TRIGGER
APPLICATION OF THE STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS TO
PREVENT A SUBSEQUENT FORECLOSURE ACTION BY THE
MORTGAGEE BASED ON PAYMENT DEFAULTS OCCURRING
SUBSEQUENT TO DISMISSAL OF THE FIRST FORECLOSURE SUIT?
1. In addition to the briefs of the parties, we have also reviewed briefs submitted on behalf of the parties by the following amici curiae: the U.S. Financial Network, the Mortgage Bankers Association and the American Legal and Financial Network on behalf of Respondent and Bradford and Cheri Langworthy and the Titcktin Law Group, P.A., Baywinds Community Association, Upside Property Investment, LLC, the Florida Alliance for Consumer Protection, the Community Associations Institute, and the National Association of Consumer Advocates on behalf of Bartram.
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We have jurisdiction. See art. V, § 3(b)(4), Fla. Const.
In this case, it is uncontroverted that the borrower, Lewis Brooke Bartram,
also referred to as the mortgagor, stopped making payments on his $650,000
mortgage and note, both before and after the foreclosure action was brought and
subsequently dismissed. For the reasons set forth in this opinion, we answer the
rephrased certified question in the negative and hold, consistent with our reasoning
in Singleton, that the mortgagee, also referred to as the lender, was not precluded
by the statute of limitations from filing a subsequent foreclosure action based on
payment defaults occurring subsequent to the dismissal of the first foreclosure
action, as long as the alleged subsequent default occurred within five years of the
subsequent foreclosure action. When a mortgage foreclosure action is
involuntarily dismissed pursuant to Rule 1.420(b), either with or without prejudice,
the effect of the involuntary dismissal is revocation of the acceleration, which then
reinstates the mortgagor's right to continue to make payments on the note and the
right of the mortgagee, to seek acceleration and foreclosure based on the
mortgagor's subsequent defaults. Accordingly, the statute of limitations does not
continue to run on the amount due under the note and mortgage. 2
2. Our holding is consistent with the views of the excellent amici briefs submitted by the Real Property Probate & Law Section of The Florida Bar, The Business Law Section of The Florida Bar, and the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation at the request of the Third District in Deutsche Bank Trust Co. Americas v. Beauvais, 188 So. 3d
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Absent a contrary provision in the residential note and mortgage, dismissal of the foreclosure action against the mortgagor has the effect of returning the parties to their pre-foreclosure complaint status, where the mortgage remains an installment loan and the mortgagor has the right to continue to make installment payments without being obligated to pay the entire amount due under the note and mortgage. Accordingly, we approve the Fifth District's opinion in U.S. Bank National Association v. Bartram, 140 So. 3d 1007 (Fla. 5th DCA 2014), and answer the rephrased certified question in the negative.
FACTS AND PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND
On November 14, 2002, Petitioners Lewis Bartram ("Bartram") and his then-wife Patricia Bartram3 ("Patricia"), purchased real property in St. Johns
County, Florida (the "Property"). Less than a year later, Patricia filed for dissolution of the couple's marriage, which was officially dissolved on November
5, 2004. Pursuant to a prenuptial agreement the Bartrams had previously executed, the divorce court ordered Bartram to purchase Patricia's interest in the Property.
938 (Fla. 3d DCA 2016). These amici briefs addressed the same issue presented by the rephrased certified question and limited their discussion to the terms of the standard form mortgage that is the subject of this case.
3. Gideon Gratsiani was substituted as a party by order of this Court after Gratsiani purchased Patricia Bartram's mortgage.
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Bartram obtained a $650,000 loan through Finance America, LLC, secured by a
mortgage on the Property in favor of Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems,
Inc., in its capacity as nominee for Finance America (the "Mortgage"). Finance
America subsequently assigned the Mortgage to Respondent, U.S. Bank National
Association (the "Bank"), as trustee and assignee. A day later, on February 17,
2005, Bartram executed a second mortgage (the "Second Mortgage") to Patricia as
security for a second mortgage note of $120,000.
The Mortgage was a standard residential form mortgage and required the
lender to give the borrower notice of any default and an opportunity to cure before
the mortgagee could proceed against the secured property in a judicial foreclosure
action. Specifically, paragraph 22 of the Mortgage was an optional acceleration
clause and provided that the lender was required to give the borrower notice that
failure to cure the default "may result in acceleration of the sums secured" by the
mortgagee and foreclosure of the property:
Acceleration; Remedies. Lender shall give notice to Borrower prior to acceleration following Borrower's breach of any covenant or agreement in this Security Instrument (but not prior to acceleration under Section 18 unless Applicable Law provides otherwise). The notice shall specify: (a) the default; (b) the action required to cure the default; (c) a date, not less than 30 days from the date the notice is given to Borrower, by which the default must be cured; and (d) that failure to cure the default on or before the date specified in the notice may result in acceleration of the sums secured by this Security Instrument, foreclosure by judicial proceeding and sale of the Property. The notice shall further inform Borrower of the right to
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reinstate after acceleration and the right to assert in the foreclosure proceeding the non-existence of a default or any other defense of Borrower to acceleration and foreclosure. If the default is not cured on or before the date specified in the notice, Lender at its option may require immediate payment in full of all sums secured by this Security Instrument without further demand and may foreclose this Security Instrument by judicial proceeding. Lender shall be entitled to collect all expenses incurred in pursuing the remedies provided in this Section 22, including, but not limited to, reasonable attorneys' fees and costs of title evidence.
In addition to providing optional acceleration and foreclosure as a remedy
for default, paragraph 19 of the Mortgage also granted the borrower a right to
reinstate the note and Mortgage after acceleration if certain conditions were met,
including paying the mortgagee all past defaults and other related expenses that
would be due "as if no acceleration had occurred":
Borrower's Right to Reinstate After Acceleration. If Borrower meets certain conditions, Borrower shall have the right to have enforcement of this Security Instrument discontinued at any time prior to the earliest of: (a) five days before sale of the Property pursuant to any power of sale contained in this Security Instrument; (b) such other period as Applicable Law might specify for the termination of
Borrower's right to reinstate; or (c) entry of a judgment enforcing this
Security Instrument. Those conditions are that Borrower: (a) pays Lender all sums which then would be due under this Security Instrument and the Note as if no acceleration had occurred; (b) cures any default of any other covenants or agreements; (c) pays all expenses incurred in enforcing this Security Instrument, including, but not limited to, reasonable attorneys' fees, property inspection and valuation fees, and other fees incurred for the purpose of protecting
Lender's interest in the Property and rights under this Security
Instrument; and (d) takes such action as Lender may reasonably require to assure that Lender's interest in the Property and rights under this Security Instrument, and Borrower's obligation to pay the
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sums secured by this Security Instrument, shall continue unchanged. Lender may require that Borrower pay such reinstatement and expenses in one or more of the following forms, as selected by Lender: (a) cash; (b) money order; (c) certified check, bank check, treasurer's check or cashier's check, provided any such check is drawn upon an institution whose deposits are insured by a federal agency, instrumentality or entity; or (d) Electronic Funds Transfer. Upon reinstatement by Borrower, this Security Instrument and obligations secured hereby shall remain fully effective as if no acceleration had occurred. However, this right to reinstate shall not apply in the case of acceleration under Section 18.4
(Emphasis added). The designated maturity date of the note was March 1, 2035.
On January 1, 2006, Bartram stopped making payments on the Mortgage,
and never made payments on the Second Mortgage. Around the same time,
Bartram also stopped paying homeowners' association assessments to the
Plantation at Ponte Vedra, Inc. (the "HOA"), the homeowners' association of the
development where the Property was located. The HOA subsequently placed a
lien on the Property for nonpayment of the HOA assessments.
On May 16, 2006, the Bank filed a complaint to foreclose the Mortgage
based on Bartram's failure to make payments due from January of that year to the
date of the complaint. The foreclosure complaint stated that all conditions
precedent to the acceleration of the Mortgage and to the foreclosure of the
Mortgage had been fulfilled or had occurred, and declared the full amount payable
4. Paragraph 18 concerned the transfer of the mortgaged property in a real estate sale without the Lender's "prior written consent," and required "immediate payment in full of of all sums secured by this Security Instrument" if breached.
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under the note and Mortgage to be due. Nearly five years later, on May 5, 2011, the foreclosure action was involuntarily dismissed after the Bank failed to appear at a case management conference.5 The Bank did not appeal the dismissal.
Following the dismissal of the foreclosure action, Bartram filed a motion to cancel the promissory note and release the lien on the mortgage. The trial court denied the motion in an order dated August 29, 2011, citing to its lack of jurisdiction in the matter since the May 5, 2011, involuntary dismissal under Rule 1.420(b) "was an adjudication on the merits and the case has been closed."
Approximately a year later, after the dismissal of the foreclosure action and almost six years after the Bank filed its foreclosure complaint, Bartram filed a crossclaim against the Bank in a separate foreclosure action Patricia had brought against Bartram, the Bank, and the HOA. Bartram's crossclaim sought a declaratory judgment to cancel the Mortgage and to quiet title to the Property, asserting that the statute of limitations barred the Bank from bringing another foreclosure action.6
5. The Record does not indicate what action occurred, if any, in the first foreclosure action from the date the complaint was filed in 2006 until it was dismissed in 2011.
6. On May 24, 2012, Bartram filed a motion for default against the Bank for failure to respond to his crossclaim, but the trial court never ruled on this motion.
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Bartram then moved for summary judgment on his crossclaim. The trial court found no genuine issue as to any material fact, granted summary judgment, quieted title in Bartram, found the Bank had no further ability to enforce its rights under the note and Mortgage that were the subject matter of the Bank's dismissed foreclosure action, and cancelled the note and Mortgage. In doing so, the trial court released the Bank's lien on the Property. The Bank subsequently filed a motion for rehearing, and after the trial court denied the Bank's motion, appealed to the Fifth District.
Before the Fifth District, the Bank relied on this Court's decision in
Singleton for its position that the trial court's dismissal "nullified [the Bank's] acceleration of future payments; accordingly, the cause of action on the accelerated payments did not accrue and the statute of limitations did not begin to run on those payments, at least until default occurred on each installment." Bartram, 140 So. 3d at 1009-10. The Bank acknowledged, however, that it could not seek to foreclose the Mortgage based on Bartram's defaults prior to the first foreclosure action, but could seek foreclosure based on defaults occurring subsequent to the dismissal of the first foreclosure action. Id. at 1009. Bartram contended on appeal, joined by Patricia and the HOA, "that the cause of action for default of future installment payments accrued upon acceleration, thus triggering the statute of limitations clock to run, and because the Bank did not revoke its acceleration at any time after the dismissal, the five-year statute of limitations period eventually expired, barring the
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The Fifth District agreed with the Bank and held that if a "new and independent right to accelerate" exists in a res judicata analysis under Singleton, 882 So. 2d at 1008, then "there is no reason it would not also exist vis-à-vis a statute of limitations issue." Id. at 1013. The Fifth District reasoned that a "new and independent right to accelerate" would mean that each new default would present new causes of action, regardless of whether the payment due dates had been accelerated in the first foreclosure action. Id. at 1013-14. Based on Singleton, the Fifth District explained, "a default occurring after a failed foreclosure attempt creates a new cause of action for statute of limitations purposes, even where acceleration had been triggered and the first case was dismissed on its merits." Id. at 1014. The Fifth District accordingly reversed the trial court's judgment, remanded the case to the trial court, and certified the question of great public importance we now address.
The rephrased certified question involves a pure question of law. Therefore, the standard of review is de novo. See Christensen v. Bowen, 140 So. 3d 498, 501 (Fla. 2014). In answering the rephrased certified question, we begin by reviewing this Court's decision in Singleton, which the Fifth District and most courts throughout the state have held to be determinative of the rephrased certified
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question. We then discuss the cases, both state and federal, that concern successive mortgage foreclosure actions in a statute of limitations context decided after Singleton. In doing so, we examine whether our analysis in Singleton, which was decided on res judicata grounds, extends to the statute of limitations context present in this case. We then discuss the significance to our analysis, if any, of the involuntary dismissal of the foreclosure action pursuant to Rule 1.420(b) and the effect of the Mortgage's reinstatement provision. Based on this analysis, we conclude by answering the rephrased certified question in the negative and approving the Fifth District's decision in Bartram.
I. Singleton v. Greymar Associates
In Singleton, a mortgagee brought two consecutive foreclosure actions against a mortgagor. 882 So. 2d at 1005. The first foreclosure action was based on the mortgagor's failure to make mortgage payments from September 1999 to February 2000 and "sought to accelerate the entire indebtedness against" the mortgagor. Id. & n.1. The first foreclosure action was dismissed with prejudice by the trial court after the mortgagee failed to appear at a case management conference. Id. After this involuntary dismissal, the mortgagee filed a second foreclosure action based on a separate default that occurred when the mortgagor failed to make mortgage payments starting in April 2000. Id. at 1005. The mortgagor contended that the dismissal of the first foreclosure action barred relief
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The mortgagor appealed, and "the Fourth District affirmed the circuit court's decision, finding that '[e]ven though an earlier foreclosure action filed by appellee was dismissed with prejudice, the application of res judicata does not bar this lawsuit. The second action involved a new and different breach.' " Id. (citing Singleton v. Greymar Assocs., 840 So. 2d 356, 356 (Fla. 4th DCA 2003)). Singleton petitioned this Court for jurisdiction, citing an express and direct conflict with Stadler v. Cherry Hill Developers, Inc., 150 So. 2d 468 (Fla. 2d DCA 1963). Id.
Stadler also involved two successive foreclosure actions where the first foreclosure action had been dismissed with prejudice. 150 So. 2d at 469. The mortgagee brought a second foreclosure action that was identical except for alleging a different period of default. That action was successful, and the mortgagor appealed. The Second District reversed the judgment of foreclosure entered on the basis of res judicata and concluded that the "election to accelerate put the entire balance, including future installments at issue." Id. at 472. Therefore, even though different periods of default were asserted, the "entire amount due" was the same and thus the "actions are identical." Id. Accordingly, the Second District concluded that res judicata barred the second foreclosure action. Id. at 473.
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with the Fourth District that "when a second and separate action for foreclosure is
sought for a default that involves a separate period of default from the one alleged
in the first action, the case is not necessarily barred by res judicata." Singleton,
882 So. 2d at 1006-07. In support, we cited with approval the Fourth District's
reasoning in Capital Bank v. Needle, 596 So. 2d 1134 (Fla. 4th DCA 1992):
Our reading of the case law set out above leads us to conclude that a final adjudication in a foreclosure action that also prays for a deficiency judgment on the underlying debt may, but does not necessarily, bar a subsequent action on the debt. For instance, if the plaintiff in a foreclosure action goes to trial and loses on the merits, we do not believe such plaintiff would be barred from filing a subsequent foreclosure action based upon a subsequent default. The adjudication merely bars a second action relitigating the same alleged default. A dismissal with prejudice of the foreclosure action is tantamount to a judgment against the mortgagee. That judgment means that the mortgagee is not entitled to foreclose the mortgage. Such a ruling moots any prayer for a deficiency, since a necessary predicate for a deficiency is an adjudication of foreclosure. There was no separate count in the Capital Bank complaint seeking a separate recovery on the promissory note alone.
Accordingly, we do not believe the dismissal of the foreclosure action in this case barred the subsequent action on the balance due on the note.
Singleton, 882 So. 2d at 1007 (quoting Capital Bank, 596 So. 2d at 1138)
Our holding in Singleton was based on the conclusion that an "acceleration
and foreclosure predicated upon subsequent and different defaults present a
separate and distinct issue" than a foreclosure action and acceleration based on the
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approval another decision of the Fourth District, Olympia Mortgage Corp. v. Pugh,
774 So. 2d 863, 866 (Fla. 4th DCA 2000), which held—contrary to the Second
District's conclusion in Stadler—that an acceleration of debt in a mortgage
foreclosure action did not place future installments at issue. As we explained, the
unique nature of a mortgage compelled this result:
This seeming variance from the traditional law of res judicata rests upon a recognition of the unique nature of the mortgage obligation and the continuing obligations of the parties in that relationship. For example, we can envision many instances in which the application of the Stadler decision would result in unjust enrichment or other inequitable results. If res judicata prevented a mortgagee from acting on a subsequent default even after an earlier claimed default could not be established, the mortgagor would have no incentive to make future timely payments on the note. The adjudication of the earlier default would essentially insulate her from future foreclosure actions on the note—merely because she prevailed in the first action. Clearly, justice would not be served if the mortgagee was barred from challenging the subsequent default payment solely because he failed to prove the earlier alleged default.
Singleton, 882 So. 2d at 1007-08 (emphasis added).
Our recognition in Singleton that each new default presented a separate
cause of action was based upon the acknowledgement that because foreclosure is
an equitable remedy, "[t]he ends of justice require that the doctrine of res judicata
not be applied so strictly so as to prevent mortgagees from being able to challenge
multiple defaults on a mortgage." Id. at 1008. Thus, the failure of a mortgagee to
foreclose the mortgage based on an alleged default did not mean the mortgagor had
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payments on the note.
II. Mortgage Foreclosure Cases Post-Singleton: Application to Statute of Limitations Context
In cases concerning mortgage foreclosure actions, since our decision in Singleton, both federal and state courts have applied our reasoning in Singleton in the statute of limitations context and have concluded that because of "the unique nature of the mortgage obligation and the continuing obligations of the parties in that relationship," an "adjudication denying acceleration and foreclosure" does not bar subsequent foreclosure actions based on separate and distinct defaults. See id. at 1007. As the Fourth District explained, under Singleton, a "new default, based on a different act or date of default not alleged in the dismissed action, creates a new cause of action." Star Funding Sols., LLC v. Krondes, 101 So. 3d 403 (Fla. 4th DCA 2012). That is because, as the First District has also explained, this
Court's "analysis in Singleton recognizes that a note securing a mortgage creates liability for a total amount of principal and interest, and that the lender's acceptance of payments in installments does not eliminate the borrower's ongoing liability for the entire amount of the indebtedness." Nationstar Mortg., LLC v. Brown, 175 So. 3d 833, 834 (Fla. 1st DCA 2015).
Other district courts of appeal have similarly applied our reasoning in Singleton to determine that the five-year statute of limitations did not bar a
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subsequent foreclosure action when the mortgagee had brought an initial foreclosure action that accelerated all sums due under the mortgage and note, on that same mortgage outside the statute of limitations window. For instance, in Deutsche Bank Trust Co. Americas v. Beauvais, 188 So. 3d 938, 947 (Fla. 3d DCA 2016), the Third District concluded that because the subject mortgage's reinstatement provision granted the mortgagor the right to avoid foreclosure by paying only the past due defaults, that "despite acceleration of the balance due and the filing of an action to foreclose, the installment nature of a loan secured by such a mortgage continue[d] until a final judgment of foreclosure [was] entered and no action [was] necessary to reinstate it via a notice of 'deceleration' or otherwise."
With reasoning similar to Beauvais, in Evergrene Partners, Inc. v. Citibank, N.A., 143 So. 3d 954, 955 (Fla. 4th DCA 2014), a mortgagor challenged, on statute of limitations grounds, a second foreclosure action brought by the mortgagee when the mortgagee had voluntarily dismissed a prior foreclosure action based on a separate default. The Fourth District held that the mortgage was still enforceable because "the statute of limitations ha[d] not run on all of the payments due pursuant to the note," specifically those payments missed after the initial alleged default. Id. In reaching this conclusion, the Fourth District relied on Singleton, and emphasized that "[w]hile a foreclosure action with an acceleration of the debt may bar a subsequent foreclosure action based on the same event of default, it does not bar subsequent actions and acceleration based upon different events of
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default." Id. Similarly, in PNC Bank, N.A. v. Neal, 147 So. 3d 32, 32 (Fla. 1st DCA 2013), the First District held that an initial foreclosure action that sought acceleration and was dismissed with prejudice did not bar the mortgagee from
"instituting a new foreclosure action based on a different act or a new date of default not alleged in the dismissed action."
Federal district courts in the state have also applied Singleton to dismiss claims seeking cancellation of a mortgage and note that are premised on the expiration of the statute of limitations after an initial foreclosure action that sought acceleration was dismissed. In Dorta v. Wilmington Trust National Ass'n, No. 5:13-cv-185-Oc-10PRL, 2014 WL 1152917 (M.D. Fla. Mar. 24, 2014), the mortgagor brought an action seeking cancellation of the mortgage based on the expiration of the statute of limitations where the mortgagee previously accelerated payments and brought a foreclosure action that was ultimately dismissed without prejudice more than five years prior. Id. at *1-2. In dismissing the mortgagor's complaint, the federal district court held that even when the initial foreclosure action is dismissed without prejudice, "where a mortgagee initiates a foreclosure action and invokes its right of acceleration, if the mortgagee's foreclosure action is unsuccessful for whatever reason, the mortgagee still has the right to file later foreclosure actions . . . so long as they are based on separate defaults." Id. at *6.
Similarly, in Torres v. Countrywide Home Loans, Inc., No. 14-20759-CIV, 2014 WL 3742141, at *1 (S.D. Fla. July 29, 2014), the federal district court
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dismissed a complaint that sought a declaration that the statute of limitations barred foreclosing on a mortgage after a prior foreclosure action where the mortgagee had sought acceleration of the note that had been dismissed. Relying on Singleton, the court noted that "each payment default that is less than five years old creates a basis for a subsequent foreclosure or acceleration action." Id. at *4; see also Romero v. SunTrust Mortg., Inc., 15 F. Supp. 3d 1279 (S.D. Fla. 2014) (holding that the installment nature of the note remained in effect after dismissal of a foreclosure action where the mortgagee had sought acceleration); Kaan v. Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., 981 F. Supp. 2d 1271 (S.D. Fla. 2013) (same).
We agree with the reasoning of both our appellate courts and the federal district courts that our analysis in Singleton equally applies to the statute of limitations context present in this case. As the Fifth District concluded, "[i]f a 'new and independent right to accelerate' exists in a res judicata analysis, there is no reason it would not also exist vis-à-vis a statute of limitations issue." Bartram, 140 So. 3d at 1013. This conclusion follows from our prior reasoning that a
"subsequent and separate alleged default created a new and independent right in the mortgagee to accelerate payment on the note in a subsequent foreclosure action." Singleton, 882 So. 2d at 1008. Therefore, with each subsequent default, the statute of limitations runs from the date of each new default providing the mortgagee the right, but not the obligation, to accelerate all sums then due under the note and mortgage.
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Consistent with the reasoning of Singleton, the statute of limitations on the balance under the note and mortgage would not continue to run after an involuntary dismissal, and thus the mortgagee would not be barred by the statute of limitations from filing a successive foreclosure action premised on a "separate and distinct" default. Rather, after the dismissal, the parties are simply placed back in the same contractual relationship as before, where the residential mortgage remained an installment loan, and the acceleration of the residential mortgage declared in the unsuccessful foreclosure action is revoked.
III. Significance of an Involuntary Dismissal and Reinstatement Provision
Having reaffirmed our prior holding in Singleton and the application of its reasoning to a statute of limitations context, we finally consider whether the type of dismissal of a foreclosure action has any bearing on our analysis and the effect of the Mortgage's reinstatement provision. In this case, the first foreclosure action was dismissed pursuant to Florida Rule of Civil Procedure 1.420, which provides for involuntary dismissals, and is the rule upon which the rephrased certified question is premised. Involuntary dismissal of a legal action by a court under Rule 1.420(b) terminates a court's jurisdiction over that action and may be with or without prejudice. A dismissal under Rule 1.420(b) operates as an adjudication on the merits as long as the dismissal was not for "lack of jurisdiction or for improper venue or for lack of an indispensable party," neither of which were a basis for the trial court's dismissal of the Bank's foreclosure action in this case.
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The Fifth District determined that the involuntary dismissal was with prejudice but concluded that "the distinction is not material for purposes" of the statute of limitations analysis. See Bartram, 140 So. 3d at 1013 n.1. We agree. While a dismissal without prejudice would allow a mortgagee to bring another foreclosure action premised on the same default as long as the action was brought within five years of the default per section 95.11(2)(c), critical to our analysis is whether the foreclosure action was premised on a default occurring subsequent to the dismissal of the first foreclosure action. As the federal district court in Dorta reasoned, "if the mortgagee's foreclosure action is unsuccessful for whatever reason, the mortgagee still has the right to file subsequent foreclosure actions—and to seek acceleration of the entire debt—so long as they are based on separate defaults." 2014 WL 1152917 at *6 (emphasis added). Accord Espinoza v. Countrywide Home Loans Servicing, L.P., No. 14-20756-CIV, 2014 WL 3845795, at *4 (S.D. Fla. Aug. 5, 2014) (finding the issue of whether the initial foreclosure action was dismissed with or without prejudice a distinction that was "irrelevant" to its analysis of whether acceleration of a mortgage note barred a subsequent foreclosure action brought outside the statute of limitations period).
Whether the dismissal of the initial foreclosure action by the court was with or without prejudice may be relevant to the mortgagee's ability to collect on past defaults. However, it is entirely consistent with, and follows from, our reasoning in Singleton that each subsequent default accruing after the dismissal of an earlier
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Our conclusion is buttressed by the reinstatement provision of the Residential Mortgage that by its express terms granted the mortgagor, even after acceleration, the continuing right to reinstate the Mortgage and note by paying only the amounts past due as if no acceleration had occurred. Specifically, the reinstatement provision in paragraph 19 of Bartram's form residential mortgage gave Bartram "the right to have enforcement of this Security Instrument discontinued at any time prior to the earliest of . . . (c) entry of a judgment enforcing this Security Instrument," as long as Bartram "(a) pa[id] the Lender all sums which then would be due under this Security Instrument and Note as if no acceleration had occurred."
Under the reinstatement provision of paragraph 19, then, even after the optional acceleration provision was exercised through the filing of a foreclosure action—as it was in this case—the mortgagor was not obligated to pay the accelerated sums due under the note until final judgment was entered and needed only to bring the loan current and meet other conditions—such as paying expenses related to the enforcement of the security interest and meeting other requirements established by the mortgagee-lender to ensure the mortgagee-lender's interest in the property would remain unchanged—to avoid foreclosure. "Stated another way, despite acceleration of the balance due and the filing of an action to foreclosure,
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the installment nature of a loan secured by such a mortgage continues until a final judgment of foreclosure is entered and no action is necessary to reinstate it via a notice of 'deceleration' or otherwise." Beauvais, 188 So. 3d at 947. Or, as the
Real Property Law Section of the Florida Bar has explained, "[t]he lender's right to accelerate is subject to the borrower's continuing right to cure." Brief for The Real
Property Probate & Trust Law Section of the Florida Bar at 8, Beauvais, 188 So. 3d 938 (Fla. 3d DCA 2016), 2015 WL 6406768, at *8. In the absence of a final judgment in favor of the mortgagee, the mortgagor still had the right under paragraph 19 of the Mortgage, the reinstatement provision, to cure the default and to continue making monthly installment payments.
Accepting Bartram's argument that the installment nature of his contract terminated once the mortgagee attempted to exercise the mortgage contract's optional acceleration clause—ignoring the existence of the mortgage's reinstatement provision—would permit the mortgagee only one opportunity to enforce the mortgage despite the occurrence of any future defaults. As we cautioned in Singleton, "justice would not be served if the mortgagee was barred from challenging the subsequent default payment solely because he failed to prove the earlier alleged default." 882 So. 2d at 1008. Following to its logical conclusion Bartram's argument that acceleration of the loan was effective before final judgment in favor of the mortgagee-lender in a foreclosure action would mean that the mortgagor-borrower would owe the accelerated amount after the
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IV. This Case
Here, the Bank's first foreclosure action was involuntarily dismissed, and therefore there was no judicial determination that a default actually occurred. Thus, even if the note had been accelerated through the Bank's foreclosure complaint, the dismissal of the foreclosure action had the effect of revoking the acceleration. By the express terms of the reinstatement provision, if, in the month after the dismissal of the foreclosure action, Bartram began to make monthly payments on the note, the Bank could not have subsequently accelerated the entire note until there were future defaults. Once there were future defaults, however, the Bank had the right to file a subsequent foreclosure action—and to seek acceleration of all sums due under the note—so long as the foreclosure action was based on a subsequent default, and the statute of limitations had not run on that particular default.
There have been many claims of unfair and predatory practices by banks and mortgage holders in the aftermath of the financial crisis that shook the country, and in particular, Florida. See, e.g., Pino v. Bank of N.Y., 121 So. 3d 23, 27 (Fla.
2013) (discussing allegations of fraudulent backdating of mortgage assignments); see also In re Amends. to Fla. Rules of Civ. Pro.—Form 1.996, 51 So. 3d 1140 (Fla. 2010) (noting the necessity for verification of ownership of the note or right
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to enforce the note in a foreclosure action because of "recent reports of alleged document fraud and forgery in mortgage foreclosure cases"). Some of these claims have included allegations that mortgage holders have precipitously sought foreclosure even though the mortgagor missed only one or two payments and attempted to cure their defaults. In this case, quite the opposite is true. Bartram raised no defense as to the terms of the Mortgage and note itself. His sole claim is that the Bank lost the right to seek foreclosure of the Mortgage based on distinct defaults that occurred subsequent to the dismissal of the initial foreclosure complaint.
After Bartram defaulted on the Mortgage, the Bank, in accordance with the terms of the mortgage contract, notified Bartram that failure to cure his past defaults would result in acceleration of the sums due under the mortgage and judicial foreclosure. When Bartram failed to cure the past defaults, the Bank filed its foreclosure complaint and exercised the optional acceleration clause. Yet, the reinstatement provision of the Mortgage afforded Bartram the opportunity to continue the installment nature of the loan by curing the past defaults. Until final judgment was entered in favor of the Bank, Bartram was not obligated to pay the accelerated loan amount. Dismissal of the foreclosure action therefore returned the parties to their pre-foreclosure complaint status. In considering the law, the facts, and equity, Bartram's position simply has no validity.
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The Fifth District properly extended our reasoning in Singleton to the statute of limitations context in a mortgage foreclosure action. Here, the Bank's initial foreclosure action was involuntarily dismissed. Therefore, as we previously explained in Singleton, the dismissal returned the parties back to "the same contractual relationship with the same continuing obligations." 882 So. 2d at 1007.
Bartram and the Bank's prior contractual relationship gave Bartram the opportunity to continue making his mortgage payments, and gave the Bank the right to exercise its remedy of acceleration through a foreclosure action if Bartram subsequently defaulted on a payment separate from the default upon which the Bank predicated its first foreclosure action. Therefore, the Bank's attempted prior acceleration in a foreclosure action that was involuntarily dismissed did not trigger the statute of limitations to bar future foreclosure actions based on separate defaults.
Accordingly, we approve the Fifth District's decision in Bartram and answer the rephrased certified question in the negative.
It is so ordered.
LABARGA, C.J., and QUINCE, CANADY, and PERRY, JJ., concur. POLSTON, J., concurs in result.
LEWIS, J., concurs in result only with an opinion.
NOT FINAL UNTIL TIME EXPIRES TO FILE REHEARING MOTION, AND
IF FILED, DETERMINED.
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I am troubled by the expansion of Singleton v. Greymar Associates, 882 So. 2d 1004 (Fla. 2004), to potentially any case involving successive foreclosure actions. Other courts in this State have already broadly applied Singleton—a decision involving res judicata and dismissal with prejudice—to cases that were either dismissed for lack of prosecution or voluntarily dismissed by the note-holder, as well as to cases that concern the statute of limitations, without careful consideration of the procedural distinctions of each case. E.g., In re Anthony, 550 B.R. 577 (M.D. Fla. 2016); Dorta v. Wilmington Tr. Nat'l Ass'n, 2014 WL 1152917 (M.D. Fla. 2014); Romero v. Suntrust Mortg., Inc., 15 F. Supp. 3d 1279 (S.D. Fla. 2014); Kaan v. Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., 981 F. Supp. 2d 1271 (S.D. Fla. 2013); Evergrene Partners, Inc. v. Citibank, N.A., 143 So. 3d 954 (Fla. 4th DCA 2014); see also In re Rogers Townsend & Thomas, PC, 773 S.E.2d 101, 105-06 (N.C. Ct. App. 2015) (relying on Singleton in a case involving previous voluntary dismissals and the statute of limitations). Today's decision will only continue that expansion, which I fear will come at the cost of established Florida law and Floridians who may struggle with both the costs of owning a home and uncertain behavior by lenders. I therefore respectfully concur in result only.
At its narrowest, Singleton simply held that "when a second and separate action for foreclosure is sought for a default that involves a separate period of default from the one alleged in the first action, the case is not necessarily barred by
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noted elsewhere, Singleton left several matters unanswered:
[T]he Supreme Court omitted explanation of 1) what constitutes a valid new default after the initial round of default, acceleration, foreclosure filing, and dismissal; 2) how the fact-finder below determines that a valid new default has occurred; and 3) what conditions constitute valid new default, including whether the lender must reinstate the original note and mortgage terms in the interim or serve a second notice of intent to accelerate. Moreover, the court in no way addressed the effect of the involuntary dismissal on the statute of limitations.
Andrew J. Bernhard, Deceleration: Restarting the Expired Statute of Limitations in
Mortgage Foreclosures, Fla. B.J., Sept.-Oct. 2014, at 30, 32. Given the procedural
posture of this matter and the relatively sparse record before this Court, the
decision today fails to address evidentiary concerns regarding how to determine the
manner in which a mortgage may be reinstated following the dismissal of a
foreclosure action, as well as whether a valid "subsequent and separate" default
occurred to give rise to a new cause of action. See Singleton, 882 So. 2d at 1008.
Instead of addressing these concerns, the Court flatly holds that the dismissal
itself—for any reason—"decelerates" the mortgage and restores the parties to their
positions prior to the acceleration without authority for support. Majority op. at 3.
In this case, there is no evidence contained in the record before this Court to
show whether the parties tacitly agreed to a "de facto reinstatement" following the
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dismissal of the previous foreclosure action.7 Further, despite the assumption of the majority of the Court to the contrary, the mortgage itself did not create a right to reinstatement following acceleration and the dismissal of a foreclosure action. The contractual right to reinstatement under the terms of this mortgage existed only under specific conditions,8 which do not appear to have been satisfied in the
7. Moreover, the precise nature of the dismissal in this case is even more uncertain than the mortgage in Beauvais, which was dismissed without prejudice. See Deutsche Bank Tr. Co. Americas v. Beauvais, 188 So. 3d 938, 964 (Fla. 3d DCA 2016) (Scales, J., dissenting). The trial court below dismissed the first foreclosure action after indicating that it had informed the parties that "[f]ailure of the parties . . . to appear in person [at the case management conference] may result in the case being dismissed without prejudice." Order of Dismissal, U.S. Bank Nat'l Ass'n v. Bartram, No. CA06-428 (Fla. 7th Cir. Ct. May 5, 2011) (emphasis added). However, the trial court's order did not explicitly state whether this dismissal was with or without prejudice. Id. ("The Complaint to Foreclose Mortgage . . . is hereby dismissed."). Further complicating the matter, the Fifth District below stated that this dismissal was with prejudice, but summarily determined "that the distinction is not material for purposes of the issue at hand." U.S. Bank Nat'l Ass'n v. Bartram, 140 So. 3d 1007, 1013 n.1 (Fla. 5th DCA 2014).
8. The mortgage note provides the following right to reinstatement:
Borrower's Right to Reinstate After Acceleration. If Borrower meets certain conditions, Borrower shall have the right to have enforcement of this Security Instrument discontinued at any time prior to the earliest of: (a) five days before sale of the Property pursuant to any power of sale contained in this Security Instrument; (b) such other period as Applicable Law might specify for the termination of Borrower's right to reinstate; or (c) entry of a judgment enforcing this Security Instrument. Those conditions are that Borrower: (a) pays Lender all sums which then would be due under this Security Instrument and the Note as if no acceleration had occurred; (b) cures any default of any other covenants or agreements; (c) pays all expenses incurred in enforcing this Security Instrument, including, but
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and other lenders that routinely engage in such litigation, should be required to
present evidence that the mortgage was actually decelerated and reinstated, rather
than require our courts to fill in the blank and assume that deceleration
automatically occurred upon dismissal of a previous foreclosure action.
Instead, I find myself more closely aligned with the dissenting opinion of
Judge Scales in Beauvais, 188 So. 3d at 954 (Scales, J., dissenting). A majority of
the en banc Third District Court of Appeal reached the same conclusion as the
majority of this Court does today regarding very similar facts. By contrast, Judge
Scales, joined by three of his colleagues, raised several concerns that arise from the
not limited to, reasonable attorneys' fees, property inspection and valuation fees, and other fees incurred for the purpose of protecting
Lender's interest in the Property and rights under this Security
Instrument; and (d) takes such action as Lender may reasonably require to assure that Lender's interest in the Property and rights under this Security Instrument, and Borrower's obligation to pay the sums secured by this Security Instrument, shall continue unchanged. Lender may require that Borrower pay such reinstatement and expenses in one or more of the following forms, as selected by Lender: (a) cash; (b) money order; (c) certified check, bank check, treasurer's check or cashier's check, provided any such check is drawn upon an institution whose deposits are insured by a federal agency, instrumentality or entity; or (d) Electronic Funds Transfer. Upon reinstatement by Borrower, this Security Instrument and obligations secured hereby shall remain fully effective as if no acceleration had occurred. However, this right to reinstate shall not apply in the case of acceleration under Section 18.
See majority op. at 6-7.
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the dismissal of a foreclosure action for any reason.
First, Judge Scales pointed out that the mortgage in Beauvais, like the
mortgage in this case, created the borrower's right to reinstatement only under
specific conditions, which did not include dismissal of a prior foreclosure action.
Id. at 956-57 ("Neither the note nor the mortgage contain any provision reinstating
the installment nature of the note if, after acceleration, a lender foreclosure action
is dismissed."). Further reviewing the clear terms of the mortgage, Judge Scales
explained that the mortgage ceased to be an installment contract upon the exercise
of the lender's right to acceleration. Id. at 961-62. Thus, the conclusion that a
court's dismissal of a foreclosure action itself can end acceleration and reinstate
the mortgage ignores basic principles of Florida contract law:
The majority opinion rewrites the parties' note and mortgage to create a reinstatement provision—i.e., reinstating the installment nature of the note, as if acceleration never occurred, upon any dismissal of any lawsuit—that the parties did not include when drafting their documents. Singleton does not say this; the parties' contract documents certainly do not say this; and Florida law is repugnant to the majority's insertion of a provision into the parties' private contract that the parties themselves most assuredly omitted. [FN. 23]
[FN. 23]: Brooks v. Green, 993 So. 2d 58, 61 (Fla. 1st DCA 2008) (holding that a court is without authority to rewrite a clear and unambiguous contract between parties).
Id. at 963.
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Moreover, Judge Scales cogently explained that the overbroad construction of Singleton will undermine its limited holding. Singleton indicated that "an adjudication denying acceleration and foreclosure" should not bar a successive foreclosure predicated upon a "subsequent and separate alleged default." 882 So.
2d at 1007, 1008. Yet, under the majority decisions of the Third District and this Court, any dismissal of a foreclosure action can support a successive foreclosure action. See Beauvais, 188 So. 3d at 963-64 (Scales, J., dissenting). The form dismissal in Beauvais should not constitute an "adjudication denying acceleration and foreclosure," which could, at least according to Singleton, restore the parties to their respective pre-acceleration positions. Id. at 964 (quoting Singleton, 882 So. 2d at 1007). In light of the even more vague dismissal at issue in this case, I agree with Judge Scales' warning that "[w]e should be reluctant to hold that a trial court's form dismissal order visits upon the borrower and lender a host of critical, yet unarticulated, adjudications that fundamentally change the parties' contractual relationship and are entirely unsupported by the existing law or by the record below." Id. at 965.
Finally, the expansion of Singleton's holding that res judicata "does not necessarily" bar the filing of successive foreclosure actions to the statute of limitations ignores critical distinctions between these two doctrines, at a serious cost to the statute of limitations and the separation of powers. As long recognized in this State, res judicata is a doctrine of equity not to "be invoked where it would
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Inc., 948 So. 2d 834 (Fla. 4th DCA 2007)); see also Singleton, 882 So. 2d at 1008 (citing deCancino v. E. Airlines, Inc., 283 So. 2d 97, 98 (Fla. 1973)). However,
"equity follows the law"; therefore, equitable principles are subordinate to statutes enacted by the Legislature, including the statute of limitations. May v. Holley, 59 So. 2d 636 (Fla. 1952); Beauvais, 188 So. 3d at 967-68 (Scales, J., dissenting)
(citing Dobbs v. Sea Isle Hotel, 56 So. 2d 341, 342 (Fla. 1952); Cragin v. Ocean & Lake Realty Co., 133 So. 569, 573-74 (Fla. 1931)). This untenable extension of an equitable, judicial doctrine into an area of law expressly governed by legislative action veers perilously close to violating the separation of powers. Nonetheless, the majority opinion of this Court fails to recognize these concerns and justifies the imposition of Singleton's equitable focus onto the statute of limitations by simply reviewing the decisions of federal and Florida courts that have reached this same conclusion without acknowledging the critical distinctions between res judicata and the statute of limitations.
I recognize the concern raised by this Court and others regarding the need to avoid encouraging delinquent borrowers from abusing the lending process by remaining in default after an initial foreclosure action is dismissed. See Singleton, 882 So. 2d at 1008; see also Fairbank's Capital Corp. v. Milligan, 234 Fed. Appx. 21, 24 (3d Cir. 2007) (relying on Singleton and seeking to avoid "encourag[ing] a
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order to later insulate the mortgagor from the consequences of a subsequent
default"). Nonetheless, these legitimate policy concerns should not outweigh the
established law of this State. In light of the narrow holding of Singleton, I fear that
its expansion today to a case involving a previous dismissal (presumably) without
prejudice and no clear reinstatement of the mortgage terms in either the note or the
facts of this limited record will lead to inequitable results. Just as the courts should
not encourage mortgage delinquency, so too should they avoid encouraging lenders
from abusing Florida law and Floridians by "retroactively reinstating" mortgages
after many of those lenders initially slept on their own rights to seek foreclosures.
See Bernhard, supra, at 27. Therefore, I concur in result only.
Application for Review of the Decision of the District Court of Appeal – Certified Great Public Importance
Fifth District - Case No. 5D12-3823
(St. Johns County)
Kendall B. Coffey, Jeffrey B. Crockett, and Daniel Frederick Blonsky of Coffey Burlington, P.L., Miami, Florida; Dineen Pashoukos Wasylik of Dineen Pashoukos Wasylik, P.A., Tampa, Florida; Thomas R. Pycraft, Jr. of Pycraft Legal Services, LLC, Saint Augustine, Florida; and Michael Alex Wasylik of Ricardo & Wasylik, PL, Dade City, Florida,
for Petitioner Lewis Brooke Bartram
Paul Alexander Bravo of P.A. Bravo, Coral Gables, Florida,
for Petitioner Gideon M.G. Gratsiani
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for Petitioner The Plantation at Ponte Vedra, Inc.
Michael Darren Starks and Kelly Overstreet Johnson of Baker, Donelson, Bearman, Caldwell & Berkowitz, PC, Orlando, Florida; William Power McCaughan, Stephanie N. Moot and Karen Poy Finesilver of K&L Gates LLP, Miami, Florida; and David R. Fine of K&L Gates LLP, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania,
for Respondent U.S. Bank National Association
Lynn Drysdale of Jacksonville Area Legal Aid, Inc., Jacksonville, Florida; Thomas A. Cox of The National Consumer Law Center, Portland, Maine; J.L. Pottenger, Jr. of Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization, New Haven, Connecticut; and James C. Sturdevant of The Sturdevant Law Firm, San Francisco, California,
for Amici Curiae National Association of Consumer Advocates, The National Consumer Law Center, and The Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization
Steven Michael Siegfried, Nicholas David Siegfried, and Nicole Reid Kurtz of Siegfried, Rivera, Hyman, Lerner, De La Torre, Mars & Sobel, P.A., Coral Gables, Florida; and Todd L. Wallen of The Wallen Law Firm, P.A., Coral Gables, Florida,
for Amicus Curiae Community Associations Institute
John Granville Crabtree, George Richard Baise, Jr., and Brian Carson Tackenberg of Crabtree & Associates, P.A., Key Biscayne, Florida; Alice Maria Vickers of Florida Alliance for Consumer Protection, Tallahassee, Florida; Kimberly Laura Sanchez of Community Legal Services of Mid-Florida, Orlando, Florida; Sarah Elizabeth Mattern of Brevard County Legal Aid, Inc, Rockledge, Florida; and Peter P. Sleasman of Florida Legal Services Inc., Newberry, Florida,
for Amici Curiae Florida Alliance for Consumer Protection, Brevard County Legal Aid, and Consumer Umbrella Group of Florida Legal Services
Andrew David Manko and John Stewart Mills of The Mills Firm, P.A., Tallahassee, Florida,
for Amici Curiae Upside Property Investment, LLC, Signature Land, Inc., Upside Property Enterprises, Inc., and The Lynne B. Preminger Living Trust
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Major Best Harding and John R. Beranek of Ausley McMullen, Tallahassee, Florida; and John Russell Hargrove of Hargrove Pierson & Brown P.A., Boca Raton, Florida,
for Amicus Curiae Baywinds Community Association, Inc.
Peter David Ticktin, Timothy Richard Quinones, and Kendrick Almaguer of The Ticktin Law Group, P.A., Deerfield Beach, Florida,
for Amici Curiae Bradford and Cheri Langworthy, and The Ticktin Law Group, P.A.
Robert Rex Edwards and Jessica Pierce Quiggle of Robertson, Anschutz & Schneid, PL, Boca Raton, Florida; Melissa A. Giasi and Richard Slaughter McIver of Kass Shuler, P.A., Tampa, Florida; Shaib Yariel Rios and Curtis James Herbert of Brock and Scott PLLC, Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Andrea Rachael Tromberg of Gladstone Law Group, P.A., Boca Raton, Florida; Elizabeth Redchuk Wellborn of Elizabeth R. Wellborn, P.A., Deerfield Beach, Florida; Michelle Garcia Gilbert and Jennifer Lima-Smith of Gilbert Garcia Group, P.A., Tampa, Florida,
for Amicus Curiae American Legal and Financial Network
Robert Mark Brochin, Joshua Charles Prever, and Brian Michael Ercole of Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP, Miami, Florida,
for Amicus Curiae Mortgage Bankers Association
David William Rodstein of Padula Hodkin, PLLC, Boca Raton, Florida,
for Amicus Curiae US Financial Network
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